What are Ghosts?


The paranormal phenomena known as ghosts are as old as the times of ancient civilisations, with many of their tale’s rich in spirit lore. In the 1800s, Victorian England, tales of spirits were all the rage, with Ouija board sessions being held during social occasions, often accompanied with tea and crumpets. In the world today, the unexplained and mysterious phenomenon is still widely believed. In a recent survey, it was discovered that almost half of us believe in ghosts! But what could they be? There are many speculations and theories on what ghosts could be, let’s take a look at some of those in detail.

Intelligent haunting

The traditional and probably most widely believed theory is that they are the spirits of dead people that are for some reason are ‘stuck’ between this plain of existence and the next. They are often stuck due to some form of tragedy or trauma, or having left something that they need to finish. Upon passing, our spirit should pass into the next dimension, but upon being ‘stuck’, our spirit must enter the light to pass. We must assume that the ‘light’ mentioned is a portal of sorts, between this realm and the next. The ghosts in this theory create intelligent hauntings, and often haunt their place of death or a place they loved in life. Very often, these ghosts are able to interact with the living. These ghosts are also able to manifest an incorporeal form, that we ourselves can perceive and also capture using surveillance devices. Some people claim to be able to communicate with these lost spirits, having the ability to not only talk to them, but see them and sense them when others cannot. These people are known as psychics or mediums and they often use their abilities to help the spirits move on.

Residual haunting

Some ghosts appear to be merely a recording of an action or event, in a specific environment, acting on a constant loop, sometimes replaying at an exact time and date. For example: A child’s laughter being heard from a place where they once played, a prisoner banging on their cell door where they were once held captive or a soldier standing guard at a post that they once guarded. There have even been cases of mechanical objects, such as trains and cars, creating a residual haunting, appearing and being heard where they often travelled. These ghosts do not interact or even appear aware of the living. Their appearance and actions are always the same when witnessed. These ghosts are not spirits or souls, but simply pure energy, created at a time of heightened emotion. This energy then gets stored in the environment, much like an analogue camera with a film roll, imprinted for as long as the environment remains.

A glimpse into an alternate reality

A lesser known and believed theory is that ghosts are entities from other dimensions. The ghosts in this theory are interdimensional beings that slide in and out of our reality, sometimes not even fully aware that they are doing so. This theory would explain why ghosts often appear confused and incoherent in EVP recording, as they wake up suddenly experiencing a different world. While they are not always in physical form, it is possible that only their energy or spirit enters our dimension. Potentially, people that we refer to as psychics, in this theory, have further evolved brains that are susceptible to perceiving interdimensional beings more than usual. 

A projection of our own inner psyche

Another theory, one that some sceptics choose to believe, is ghosts are products of our own minds through fear or emotional need. For example, a grieving widow sees her deceased husband because she needs to, giving her comfort and closure. In this case, the mind creates the experience to help itself deal with the stress of the loss. Since we do not know the full potential of our minds power, we could be in fact creating physical manifestations that we can even interact with.

So, there we have it, could one of these theories explain the phenomenon of ghosts? Of course, there is room for all of these theories to indeed be fact, the world is a large and mysterious place that we do not yet fully understand. Maybe ghosts are just beings that our minds cannot yet fathom. One day we will discover the truth, but for now it is up to us to speculate and theorise, and to believe in what we want to believe.




Alien hand discovered. Real or hoax?


Whilst researching the odds of alien life being in this universe, I kept coming across this image of the supposed remains of an alien hand. The ‘Alien claw’, as many articles have dubbed it, was discovered early this month (January 2017) in ‘mystery caves’ deep beneath a desert in Peru (although the exact location is being kept tightly under wraps by the discoverer).

This potential extraterrestrial appendage was discovered by a team of Alien hunters, along with a ‘warped skull’. Unfortunately I cannot find any images of the skull, or evidence of it existing, for that matter.

The claw and skull was then passed to a paranormal researcher who used an unnamed group of ‘experts’ to conduct tests. The group concluded that both items were ‘genuine biological objects with real bone and skin tissues’.

The remains are being handed over to experts in America, for radiocarbon dating and DNA tests in the hope that this will reveal the true origin of these mysterious objects.

So there we have it, could this be proof of alien existence? I have to remain sceptical on this one, there is far too much information being withheld by the discovering group. I guess it could be argued that they are withholding information to avoid media attention or the government, but then they wouldn’t have made this discovery public at all. To add to this, isn’t the coincidence of alien hunters stumbling upon alien remains in a location that they wont completely disclose of, a bit convenient? Maybe I am looking at the facts too closely, but my scepticism will remain until the further tests are made public and the results state that the objects are of alien origin.

What do you think on this? Is it real or a hoax?



The odds of Alien life existing


Ever since we began exploring the stars, humanity has pondered on whether we are alone in this universe. The universe is potentially infinite, ever expanding, we know this due to having witnessed galaxies moving away from us and each other. It is due to this vastness of the universe that we can speculate that there must be intelligent life, other than ours, in either this galaxy or another. If the universe contains billions of galaxies, and if each galaxy contains billions of stars, and if a fraction of those stars have earth-like planets, then the chances of alien life existing must be pretty high, right? In 1995, astronomers located the first planets outside our solar system. Since then, they’ve detected nearly 300 more. Most of these planets are large hot planets, much like Jupiter, but some are small earth-like planets. Could these planets already have intelligent civilisations?

If only there was a mathematical equation to determine this for us. In fact, there is. In 1961, astronomer Frank Drake presented a formula, now known as the Drake Equation, that estimates the number of intelligent civilisations in our galaxy. The formula generated much controversy, due to it generating widely variable results, but still remains as our best way to quantify just how many extraterrestrials there could be. The formula goes like this:

N = RfpneflfifcL

In this equation, N is the number of detectable civilizations in our galaxy. The other variables are described below:

  • R is the rate of star formation in the galaxy
  • fp is the fraction of stars that form planets
  • ne is the number of planets hospitable to life (i.e., Earth-like planets)
  • fl is the fraction of these planets on which life actually emerges
  • fi is the fraction of these planets on which intelligent life arises
  • fc is the fraction of these planets with intelligent beings capable of interstellar communication
  • L is the length of time such a civilization remains detectable

As you can see from the equation, there are many variables that we can only speculate on, however, this has been done. Drakes original calculation predicted that there are 10,000 undiscovered intelligent civilizations in the Milky way alone.

Harvard physicist Paul Horowitz stated in a 1996 interview “Intelligent life in the universe? Guaranteed. Intelligent life in our galaxy? So overwhelmingly likely that I’d give you almost any odds you’d like.” However, this was swiftly countered by the Fermi Paradox. This paradox, first articulated by nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi in 1950, asks the following questions: If extraterrestrials are so common, why haven’t they visited? Why haven’t they communicated with us? Or, finally, why haven’t they left behind some residue of their existence, such as heat or light?

I must agree with the questions raised by the Fermi paradox, however, maybe we can speculate the whys of this argument. It is only being assumed that they have not visited, maybe they are here already. We have all heard of the popular theories of reptilian aliens being in major places of power and the alien structures under the sea. Unfortunately, there is no hard evidence on this, but anything is possible and the speculation must come from somewhere. Maybe they are watching us right now, deciding when the time is right to make contact. Crop circles, UFO sighting and abductions all point to this. There have been literally thousands of such cases, can so many people be wrong? Maybe, they are out there, but they haven’t reached us yet. The problem is distance, even if we manage harness travelling at the speed of light, our galaxy itself would still take 25,000 years to span. That’s 1/8 of our entire existence on this earth! However, it is impossible to know the full potential of technology. Our own technology is forever advancing, and what we can do now, when compared with 6,000 years ago, is astounding. A species that has survived much longer than ours could have unlimited technological potential, maybe even more so than our minds can fathom.

In conclusion to this, the chances of alien life existing is exceptionally high. We may not see any hard evidence of this for many years to come, or we might be shaking hands with extraterrestrials tomorrow. We can only speculate and calculate using what we are still discovering about the universe and our own existence. What extraterrestrials will do when they discover us or how they will act when they decide to unveil themselves, is a different matter altogether, and a topic for another post. I personally believe that, with the facts that I have uncovered, we are not alone in this universe, and I hope that we will discover evidence of that within my lifetime. Keep watching the stars, and know that someone, somewhere, might be watching back.

The Mandela Effect


The Mandela effect seems to be somewhat of a craze in the paranormal and theorist community at the moment. It has a huge following with over 11,000 posts web wide, a dedicated Subreddit and websites appearing to catalogue information on the theory. So here is a brief look at what it’s all about and my personal thoughts on the subject.

The Mandela effect is a theory put forth by writer and paranormal consultant Fiona Broome, that shared false memories are in fact glimpses into parallel worlds with different timelines. Fiona Broome states that the origin of her theory came out of a discussion about whether or not Nelson Mandela died in prison. Henceforth the title given, the Mandela effect. The theory suggests that we are in fact are sliding between parallel realities without even realising it, obtaining different truths that counter what we know as fact.

There are many examples of this, given by a growing community, and the list is forever expanding. I will give my top five examples:

  1. The word Dilemma being spelt Dilemna. I also remember the latter being the correct spelling, strange.
  2. The “tank man” in Tiananmen Square was run over by a tank, though he was not. Although I personally do not remember the man being ran over by the tank, this one has a huge following, and is one of the biggest cases of the Mandela effect.
  3. Mickey mouse having suspenders, when in fact, he doesn’t. This one actually blew my mind, I remember him having suspenders, why does he have buttons on his shorts if not?
  4. The Berenstain Bears was once known as The Berenstein bears. It may only be one letter, but it changes the sound of the whole word, I personally remember it as the latter.
  5. Nelson Mandela died in prison, when he in fact died only a few years ago, a free man. Of course, the name sake of the theory. This also blew my mind to find out, I can see how this event caused such a phenomenon.

There are so many more examples of this phenomena, including places on the map increasing in size or moving and famous lines in well-known movies being altered. I will not include any more examples here, as there are far too many, but it is definitely worth looking into.

So how are so many people collectively remembering things incorrectly, it seems impossible, right? Perhaps it is. I am a firm believer in alternate realities, the theory has been researched and documented by some of the greatest minds that the world has ever known. However, I cannot come to a solid conclusion on this subject, my view sways from both the mundane and the paranormal. So, I will conclude twice:

The mundane- We are remembering things incorrectly.

Although it may seem impossible that so many of us are remembering incorrectly, many of the examples of The Mandela effect, are slight. In theory, if one person hears something incorrectly, say a line a movie, the chances are that many more people will hear the same thing. If those people then pass on what they heard, the line could potentially change in their mind too. Thus, a chain of incorrect information is formed. The same can be applied to logos appearing different and cartoon characters changing, or it could simply be the artists making slight changes.

I am not in any way demeaning anyone’s beliefs with this conclusion, everyone is entitled to their own interpretation on this subject. However, this is not my final conclusion, as I am still deciding for myself.

The paranormal- We are sliding in and out of alternate realities.

This is the theory put forward by Fiona Broome herself, and is believed by many. There is so much about this universe that we are yet to understand, it is possible that our minds are yet to fathom our own ability. This ability could be, indeed, to travel to alternate realities, and thus we would not know. This would resolve why we remember things that are simply not true, we grow up knowing something as fact, that fact is then literally altered.

I’m going to throw a curve ball in here, another possibility- Glitches in the matrix.

Another theory in itself, but with many similarities that could conclude the change of information. The theory put simply is that we are all living inside a preordained world or computer program. I won’t go too far into the details of this theory, as it would need a post itself, but those are the basics. Changes or glitches in this program could have gone past us unnoticed, until now. Maybe we are waking up.

Whatever your views are on The Mandela effect, I think that we can all come together and agree that it is a very interesting subject with numerous possibilities and theories. Maybe one day, with all of the great minds working on this theory, we can discover something truly amazing.

Modern Day Monster Hunting


With an exponentially increasing advancement in technology, we can now capture supernatural and paranormal phenomena in high definition using an array of voice and video recording equipment. This should prove indefinitely the existence of said phenomena, right? Unfortunately, not so. With such advancements in recording technology comes the inevitable advancement in editing software.

Enter the fakes. The hoaxes. The deceivers. Call them what you will, but I’ll go with fakes. There are so many fake videos out there that it would be almost impossible to discern the genuine. We may have already seen the evidence that we need to verify the existence of the supernatural and paranormal, but we may never know. But why are fakes created?

An apparent common reason is personal gain. The supernatural and paranormal are popular subjects among many, and we are unfortunately very susceptible to a good piece of evidence. A good fake video can generate fame and sometimes even fortune, if it’s well done. A large stage has been created for such videos, YouTube.

A well-known example of this is the tunnel creature footage, posted by a water utilities company on YouTube, and has also been used for popular creepypasta, “The Rake”. The video shows CCTV footage of a “reptilian creature peering out with luminous eyes and large forearms before fleeing, revealing a long tail” which was supposedly captured by sewer engineers on a routine survey. I won’t go much into the details of what I think after studying this video, I’ll save that for a later blog. The video was later revealed as fake, an Aprils fool’s joke, but most importantly, a marketing scheme. Using the power of our genuine interest to generate views.

Another example that comes to mind is a famous picture of the Loch Ness Monster, well, just its hump actually. It was taken by a boat tour guide in August 2010, and was swiftly dubbed “the most convincing Loch Ness Monster photo ever”. The cameraman later came forward and admitted that it was a hoax, created using a simple inanimate fibre glass hump, and was created “just for a laugh”. Although no known fortune was gained from this, the picture is known amongst the best Nessie fakes.

Whatever the reason to create fake material is, it’s going to make our jobs a lot harder in discovering the truth. There are so many ways to create this fake material using a combination of modern day technology and other methods that have been around for an age. A person adorning a convincing costume has been used successfully many a time, and Photoshop adds a powerful tool to be used to manipulate and alter. Some are not even created intentionally, but are equally deceiving when used wrongly. A lens flare or an object captured in the wrong lighting can be surprisingly convincing. There is even an App to superimpose ghostly and demonic figures into your everyday photos and selfies. There really is an App for everything! Do not despair however, study each piece of evidence with an open mind and decide for yourself.

In conclusion to this, there are many ways to create a fake piece of the paranormal or supernatural, to play with our beliefs and our search for the truth, or just for personal gain. One golden rule when it comes to analysing evidence is if it’s too good to be true, it normally is. When applying this rule, we can quickly separate the fake from the potential, then all that is left is your personal belief. I do believe that the one real piece of evidence that we all need is out there, all that we need to do is find it.